Drilling rig is the general name of a series of mechanical equipment that drives drilling tools to the formation in the process of oil drilling, also called drilling machine. Its main function is to drive the drilling tool to break the rock at the bottom of the well, and to enter or put forward the drilling tool in the well.
Eight major rig systems
Drilling RIGS generally have eight systems (lifting system, rotary system, drilling fluid circulation system, transmission system, control system and monitoring display instrument, power drive system, drilling base, drilling auxiliary equipment system), which must have the capability of tripping, rotary drilling and circulating well cleaning. Its main equipment includes: derrick, crane, winch, traveling block, hook, turntable, faucet (power faucet) and drilling pump (site custom called drill eight parts), power engine (diesel engine, electric motor, gas turbine), intermotor, solid control equipment, well control equipment, etc.
The drill is equipping with a lifting system for lifting and lowering the drill string, running the casing, controlling weight on bit and feeding the drill string. The lifting system includes winch, auxiliary brake, crane, trolley, hook, wire rope and hoist ring, hoist clamp, hoist pliers, slips and other tools. When lifting, the winch drum wraps the steel wire rope, the crane and the trolley form the auxiliary pulley block, and the big hook rises through the lifting ring, lifting clamp and other tools to achieve the lifting of the drill.
When lowering, the drill or casing string is lowering by its own weight, and the lowering speing of the hook is controlling by the brake mechanism of the winch and the auxiliary brake. During normal drilling, the feed speing of the drill tool is controlling by the brake mechanism, and part of the weight of the drill tool is appliing to the bit as bit weight to break the rock layer.
The rotary system is a typical system of the rotary table drill, whose function is to drive the drilling rig tool to rotate to break the rock layer. The rotary system includes the rotary table, the faucet and the drilling tool. Depending on the type of drill being drilling, there are variations in the composition of drill tools, which generally include kelly, drill pipe, drill collars, and bits, as well as centralizers, shock absorbers, and mating joints.
The drill is a direct rock breaking tool, including scraper bit, cone bit, diamond bit and so on. The large weight and wall thickness of the drill collar is using to apply weight on bit. The drill pipe connects the surface equipment to the downhole equipment and transfers torque. The kelly has a square cross section, through which the rotary table rotates the drill string and bit. The faucet is a typical part of a rotary drill rig, which supports the weight of the drill string and rotates the motion while providing access to high-pressure mud.
The rotary rig is equipping with a circulating system to bring cuttings from the bottom bit to the surface in time for further drilling and to cool the bit to protect the wall and prevent any drilling accidents such as falling in and losing out. Circulating system includes drilling pump, surface manifold, mud tank, mud purification equipment, etc. The surface manifold includes high pressure manifold, riser and hose, and the mud purification equipment includes vibration screen, desander, desander, centrifuge, etc.
The mud is sucking from the mud tank by the drilling pump, pressurized by the drilling pump, through the high-pressure manifold, riser, hose, into the faucet, through the hollow drilling tool down to the bottom of the hole, from the drill hole out of the hole, through the circular space between the hole and the drilling tool to carry cuttings back to the surface.
The mud returned from the bottom of the hole through all levels of mud purification equipment, remove the solid phase content, and then reuse.